**Table of contents:**

- Introduction
- What is kurtosis?
- How to calculate kurtosis?
- How to calculate kurtosis in Python?
- Conclusion

Kurtosis is mainly a measure of describing the shape of a probability distribution and specifically its “tailedness”.

The calculated statistic evaluates how thick or thin the tails of a given probability distribution are compared to the normal distribution.

Where skewness focuses on the differentiating the tails of the distribution based on the extreme values (or simply the symmetry of the tails), kurtosis measures whether there are extreme values in either of the tails (or simply if the tails are heavy or light).

…

**Table of contents:**

- Introduction
- What is skewness?
- How to calculate skewness?
- How to calculate skewness in Python?
- Conclusion

Skewness is something we observe in many areas of our daily lives. For example, something that people often search online is salary distribution in a particular country of interest. Here is an example:

<a href=”https://www.statista.com/statistics/464262/percentage-distribution-of-earnings-in-canada-by-level-of-income/" rel=”nofollow”><img src=”https://www.statista.com/graphic/1/464262/percentage-distribution-of-earnings-in-canada-by-level-of-income.jpg" alt=”Statistic: Percentage distribution of income in Canada in 2019, by level of income (in Canadian dollars) | Statista” style=”width: 100%; height: auto !important; max-width:1000px;-ms-interpolation-mode: bicubic;”/></a><br />Find more statistics at <a href=”https://www.statista.com" rel=”nofollow”>Statista</a>

Find more statistics at Statista

Looking at Canadian distribution of income in 2019…

**Table of contents**

- Introduction
- Sample PDF files
- Extract single table from a single page of PDF using Python
- Extract multiple tables from a single page of PDF using Python
- Extract all tables from PDF using Python
- Conclusion

When reading research papers or working through some technical guides, we often obtain then in PDF format. They carry a lot of useful information and the reader may be particularly interested in some tables with datasets or findings and results of research papers. However, we all face a difficulty of easily extracting those tables to Excel or DataFrames.

Thanks to Python and some…

**Table of Contents**

- Introduction
- Davies-Bouldin Index
- Step 1: Calculate intra-cluster dispersion
- Step 2: Calculate separation measure
- Step 3: Calculate similarity between clusters
- Step 4: Find most similar cluster for each cluster
*i* - Step 5: Calculate Davies-Bouldin Index
- Davies-Bouldin Index example in Python
- Conclusion

The Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) is one of the clustering algorithms evaluation measures. It is most commonly used to evaluate the goodness of split by a K-Means clustering algorithm for a given number of clusters.

In a few words, the score (DBI) is calculated as the average similarity of each cluster with a cluster most similar to it…

**Table of Contents**

- Introduction
- Factorial formula
- Calculating factorial in Python
- Factorial functions in Python
- Conclusion

Most often you would see factorials in combinatorics algebra and probability theory.

Factorials are used in permutations (calculating the number of ways to arrange some objects) and combinations (calculating the number of ways a subset of objects can be selected from a set of objects).

Basically, for any integer n, that is greater than or equal to 1 (*n* ≥ 1), the factorial is the product of all integers in range (1:*n*)and is denoted by **n!**.

The factorial formula:

**Table of Contents**

- Introduction
- Quadratic formula
- Solving quadratic equation using Python
- Complete code
- Conclusion

In algebra, quadratic equations are widely used in a lot of tasks. A quadratic equation (second-degree polynomial) always has a squared term which differentiates it from our usual linear equations.

In this tutorial we will use the math library (prebuilt in Python) for solving quadratic equations using Python.

We begin with understanding the standard form of quadratic equation:

So how do we know if the equation has a solution? And if it does, how many solutions?

The first step to solve a quadratic equation is to…

In this article we will discuss how to solve linear programming problems with Gurobipy in Python.

- Introduction
- Linear programming example
- Solving linear programming problem with Python
- Conclusion

Linear programming (LP) is a tool to solve optimization problems. It is widely used to solve optimization problems in many industries.

In this tutorial we will be working with **gurobipy** library, which is a Gurobi Python interface. Gurobi is one of the most powerful and fastest optimization solvers and the company constantly releases new features. You can learn more about their licenses here.

To continue following this tutorial we will need the following…

In this article we will discuss how to make a simple keylogger using Python.

**Table of Contents**

- Introduction
- Press and release keys
- Create a sample log file
- Create a simple keylogger
- Conclusion

Keyloggers are a type of monitoring software used to record keystrokes made by the user with their keyboard.

They are often used for monitoring the network usage as well as troubleshoot the technical problems. On the other hand, a lot of malicious software uses keyloggers to attempt to get usernames and passwords for different websites.

To continue following this tutorial we will need the following Python library: **pynput**.

…

In this article we will discuss how to get system and hardware information of your computer using Python.

**Table of Contents**

- Introduction
- System information
- CPU usage
- Memory usage
- Conclusion

We often look at our system information and open the task manager to see the utilization of our CPU and RAM and look through the processes running.

There is a convenient way of retrieving such information using Python in a few lines of code.

To continue following this tutorial we will need the following two Python libraries: **platform** and **psutil**.

The platform module is already installed by default.

If you…

In this article we will discuss cosine similarity with examples of its application to product matching in Python.

**Table of Contents:**

- Introduction
- Cosine Similarity (Overview)
- Product Similarity using Python (Example)
- Conclusion

A lot of interesting cases and projects in the recommendation engines field heavily relies on correctly identifying similarity between pairs of items and/or users.

There are several approaches to quantifying similarity which have the same goal yet differ in the approach and mathematical formulation.

In this article we will explore one of these quantification methods which is cosine similarity. …